This is part of the Implicit Cosmology Series of essays associated with the Trans-survival Hypothesis. It has been incorporated into a book titled Your Immortal Self. Some potentially important changes have likely been made to this essay for the book. As such, please consider this essay an early draft.
Is the metaphysical approach for you? Please read my comments here before getting very far into this essay.
You may know this subject as spiritual healing. Perhaps a more progressive term is energy healing, but if you really want to be technically correct, I believe “biofield therapy” is the term becoming popular in parapsychology.
In their essence, the various modalities of healing involve the expression of a practitioner’s (the healer) intention to help a sitter (the person being healed), preferably by directly improving the sitter’s health but at least by improving the sitter’s general sense of wellbeing.
This essay focuses on the nature of healing intention in the context of the Implicit Cosmology. However, as is discussed in the Etheric Fields Essay, it is the combination of what is intended, how it is visualized and focus of attention that determines whether or not the expression is sensed as healing, or perhaps, only as friendship.
My Qualifications to Speak About Healing
Developing a model such as the Implicit Cosmology is a logical process which requires me to be knowledgeable about a wide range of subjects. To speak about these subjects with a degree of authority also requires the kind of understanding that usually comes from personal experience and considerable contemplation. I feel qualified to speak of many metaphysical subjects, but there are areas in which I have not gained sufficient knowledge to speak with any authority. Healing intention is one of those subjects.
Much of my personal experience in metaphysics is with ITC, but over the years, I have been trained in and have practiced a wide range of healing modalities including Reiki (I am certified as a Reiki Master), spiritual healing (NSAC Commissioned Spiritualist Healer1) and a number of healing modalities from various metaphysical schools. Even with this experience, I do not consider myself qualified to make blanket statements about healing.
With that in mind, what I say here about healing is in the context of the Implicit Cosmology. In other words, I am stating what makes sense if all or most of that model is correct. It is for you to decide whether or not this makes sense to you. Please take advantage of the references I provide along the way, especially the bibliography provided by Dean Radin on his personal website.2
Intention: Intentionality is the motive influence which is necessary to realize a visualized outcome. The creative process entails the expression of a visualized outcome with the intention that it will be so. In a practical sense, that process without intention is just fantasy. See the Creative Process Essay.
Expression: The output of the creative process is expression. The creative process itself is an unconscious one of which the conscious self only becomes aware when the process results in some form of “outward” expression. This may be movement of a hand, speaking, walking, a conscious thought or the awareness of something in the environment. Expression can also be unconscious, as for instance, the unconscious expression of doubt when consciously trying to achieve some goal.
Rapport: The outcome of the creative process which includes the intention to heal might be imagined as a thread of attention between the healer and the receiver. This thread is characterized as rapport, the nature of which is a factor of attention, visualization and intention.
Intention Field: Expression of intention manifests as an intention field which represents all of the imagery, thoughts, understanding and beliefs associated with the expression, as well as the organizing rules necessary to establish intended order. Intention fields persist as long as the personality maintains attention on the intended outcome. This is a form of etheric field.
Biofield: As a biological organism, the human body has an electromagnetic field caused by biological processes. This field is detectable with instruments, but some people also maintain they are able to see, or at least sense this field. This field is physical and studied in the mainstream sciences.
The body also has an etheric field which is associated with the conscious mind, body consciousness, and if applicable, the entangled etheric personality. These fields are not currently recognized by mainstream science, but are studied to some detail in parapsychology and are an integral part of many systems of belief. In parapsychology, they are better known as “psi fields.”
Mapping a Person
As is shown in the Life Field Complex diagram, there are three fields associated with a human body which must be considered to understand healing intention:
The life field represented by personality, which is the immortal intelligent core of who we are, is the primary field from the life field-centric perspective. It brings purpose and prior understanding. It is also part of a collective of personalities so that, although it functions as an individual, it is able to solicit cooperation from fellow personalities in its collective.
The life field represented by the human organism. In parapsychology, this is better recognized as a morphic field.3 It holds the body’s formative body image and includes the body consciousness. The formative influence for the body image is derived from prior form of the organism (nature’s habit). The organism’s autonomic controls are represented in the morphic field. The body consciousness brings instincts which are based on the intended survival of the species.
The functional areas representing perception, known here as the Attention Complex, is shared by both organism and personality fields. This complex includes a worldview memory “database” which represents the person’s worldview (a person is a personality entangled with a human body). Worldview is similar to the body image memory field associated with the morphic field, but is more concerned with expression and understanding. This complex includes an Attention Limiter which filters out uninteresting external stimuli and a Perceptual Loop which, working with worldview, determines what a person becomes conscious of and how it is perceived and/or expressed.
The personality is entangled with the human body in an avatar relationship; however, in practical terms, the human body consciousness is dominant until personality has become sufficiently self-aware to moderate the otherwise instinctual behavior of the organism.
Worldview: Worldview represents the person’s personal reality, and the education of the person effectively “fills the database” with beliefs that shapes the point of view and behavior of the person as a citizen of its community.
Attention Complex: Everything in the environment produces a psi signal which is sensed in the Attention Complex. Likewise, the physical body senses numerous physical signals. The Attention Limiter serves as a filter to ignore or process these environmental signals, depending on the person’s interests and whether or not there is a component with potential survival implications.
Perceptual Loop: The Perceptual Loop attempts to image each external influence based on worldview. The resulting image is then offered to worldview, and if it agrees with current personal reality, it will be perceived (consciously sensed), but as it is colored by worldview.
For instance, a farmer might ignore a plane flying overhead, but quickly notice a hawk. The mayor of a town might see a new subdivision as a good thing while a farmer might see it as more competition for water. A person not governing its avatar’s instincts might overeat while one who has learned to moderate such instincts might know to limit portions. A person taught to believe in evil is more likely to experience evil influences than a person who sees such behavior as just errant human nature.
All of these functional areas are etheric (nonphysical) in the sense that mind is separate from the brain. All but some aspects of perception are unconscious, so that what is consciously sensed is a representation of what was unconsciously sensed based on worldview (personal reality).
The Aging Paradox
As proposed in the Hypothesis of Formative Causation,3 the component parts of a biological organism are organized by morphic fields based on body image informed by “nature’s habit.” Body image is for the physical body as worldview is for personality.
The human body is formed as humans have always been formed, modified by the influence of inherited genes. Also, cells in the body have a much shorter life span than the body itself, and new ones are frequently formed according to “local” morphic fields. See Organizing fields in the Etheric Fields Essay.
There is clearly a mechanism built into the human body morphic field that causes aging. At first, it is the process of maturing to adulthood with ever-increasing vitality, but at some point, the growth stops and aging sets in, leading to eventual death of the body.
Things do go wrong during the growing up and then aging process. Not even talking about mechanical problems, there is a host of potential genetic malfunctions that plague the body and the environment can too easily harm the body.
One of the aging mechanisms built into the body is the telomere.4 It is a component of the cell that, in effect, seals the end of a DNA string and keeps it from binding with other strings. Biologists say a cell starts out with some 15,000 base pairs but loses 25-200 base pairs each time it divides. When the cell runs out of telomeres, it dies. In effect, the cell is scheduled to die, and that seems to be echoed in the entire organism.
Based on depletion of telomeres, the human body is apparently not intended to be immortal. At the same time, a cancer cell is a problem because it is immortal. Somehow, the telomeres are not depleted in cancer cells and the cell can divide indefinitely.
So to me, the paradox is how the body image, which determines the formation of the body, fails to form the cells according to nature’s habit … unless it is nature’s habit to get old and die.
One of the assumptions of the Implicit Cosmology is that there is not magic in the sense that something might “magically” violate nature’s principles. Processes always proceed according to knowable influences and outcomes are always natural. No magical skipping steps; just an ordered reality.
The formation of our human body is also predictable, as are its internal processes. No magic! For this to be true, then the body image must have a mechanism that is part of nature’s habit to age. At the same time, scientists are working on techniques to stop that aging.
Telomerase is an enzyme that restores telomeres. It is active in young bodies, but not very active in aging bodies. The idea is to find a way to increase the production of telomerase to keep cells young without promoting growth of cancer cells. It appears to be at least feasible that cells can be enabled to divide indefinitely, presumably bringing longer life for the body.
Given that body aging can be at least postponed, then the body image … nature’s habit, should be equally pliable. As such, a reasonable objective of healing intention is to influence the body image to “remember” its youth.
Studies indicate that worldview resists dramatic change, but is responsive to small incremental changes. This is the “maybe” outcome of the Perceptual Loop. The human body image is the morphogenetic equivalent of worldview, and according to the models, changes in the body are preceded by changes in the body image.
The incremental change in worldview comes from changes in behavior in response to external influences. As the model goes, these adaptations do not normally occur unless they are small changes while proposals for dramatic changes in behavior are simply ignored, rejected or negotiated into a series of increments within the Attention Complex.
Rupert Sheldrake described this evolution of the body image in terms of creative responses to environmental influences. In some ways, this hypothesis is a modern variation on Lamarckism (1809).5 Lamarckism held that changes in a species were caused by adaptation to environmental influences and that these were inherited. That theory was set aside in favor of Darwin’s Natural Selection (1859),6 which proposed that random mutations were selected, based on their contribution to survival and that the stronger individuals were able to perpetuate beneficial mutations.
Darwinism does not allow for the existence of an etheric mind, and without the etheric body image concept, there is no evident mechanism for creative responses to change the body. Sheldrake’s Hypothesis of Formative Causation does include the possibility of an etheric body image (nature’s habit), and thus, a way for environmental influences to cause a change in the body via the body image. Conversely, the relationship of the morphic field with a collective provides a mechanism for propagation of a change throughout fields sharing the same characteristics.
Based on the Implicit Cosmology, it is possible that aging came about as an accidental response to environmental influences. There is nothing in the model that restricts evolutionary changes to only beneficial ones. A series of incremental responses to environmental influences such as skin damaged by the sun or too much mineral in available water might have produces creative survival response changes to the body image as the species attempted to adapt.
Aging may be nothing more than an evolutionary response to environmental influences. If aging is not predestined, then it should be possible to address the effects of aging by addressing the creative process associated with the body image. I leave it to people more qualified to design self-help regimes to explore this possibility.
Mind is Impressionable
An alternative explanation of aging is that body image is easily influenced by expectation. Looking again at hyperlucidity, it is clear that rational thinking can be overridden by imagination. This impressionable nature of morphic memory is possibly a factor in aging, as aging is something we are all expected to do.
There is clearly a purpose for the aging process associated with a growth of newborn baby into a man. That aging process basically completes the development of the organism, as can be seen with the many provisions in the formation of bones and glandular secretions for growth. As is too often demonstrated in modern culture, a young person typically views a physically prime person as “old.” Is it possible that this concept of age differential has become so much a part of our culture that aging is considered an inevitable fate?
The Expression of Healing Intent
When a person thinks of another person, a link of influence is established between the two. In the context of the Implicit Cosmology, this is referred to as rapport. The nature of this rapport (the link) is determined by the person’s attention, visualization and intention (the source). For examples:
A thought may be in the form of a casual glance devoid of intention. The object of the glance will become unconsciously aware of the attention, depending on how open the person is to uninvited attention, and how receptive the person is to the intention signal accompanying the attention.
The thought might be a stare inadvertently expressing admiration. In this case, the other might sense the admiration, but since it is not specific, it might never emerge into the person’s conscious mind.
The thought might be an expression of love, complete with a recalled mental image of the loved one and desire that the loved one know. In this case, attention on the image of the loved one with the intention that the loved one is aware of the love will likely be sensed by the other. However, not being accustomed to translating psi-received information, the other person might never become consciously aware of the thought. However, it would likely have an influence on the person’s sense of wellbeing.
The thought might be in the form of the intention to send healing to another. As with the thought of the loved one, if the thought is accompanied by focused attention, a clear image and specific intention, then the receiver can be expected to at least unconsciously sense the influence. It will likely not be consciously sensed unless that was the intention. Once again, if the person is not accustomed to consciously experiencing such psi influences, then worldview might not have the necessary data to translate the influence into recognizable form.
There is little systematic difference between expression in the form of telling a story, seeking information from the Internet and expression in the form of a desire to benefit the health and wellbeing of another. The creative process applies the same. However, it is reasonable to speculate that there are differences in quality between healing intention and a mundane act.
Expressing Healing Intention
There are many different healing modalities, and each is supported by a system of thought that is often based on centuries of tradition. Most are based on assumptions that include considerable belief, but because healing intention is so influential, virtually all of these modalities are effective. What might be questioned is whether or not they are effective because of the associated beliefs or because simply wishing someone good health, helps.
The process of expressing healing intention involves important ethical considerations that are shared by all modalities I am aware of. As a general practice, a healer expresses the intent to improve the sitter’s wellbeing no matter how that might look. It is left to the sitter’s etheric personality and body image to respond in a way that is best for the sitter. While “healing” is the intention, it is up to the sitter to accept healing, or how to apply the good intention.
Examine the Life Field Complex Diagrams (above). The physical body is really the outward expression of a very complex unconscious process which includes both the human body consciousness and the personality. In this model, all of the external influences must pass through the Attention Complex, and with healing intention, the expression of that complex is the sitter’s response. Basically, the healing intention is just another external influence.
If the sitter’s worldview is open to healing, then the healing intention will be more readily accepted. The same is true if the sitter thinks something might happen. If the sitter believes in healing but doubts it will ever personally happen (I am not good enough, I am too sick, the healer is just an amateur), then that aspect of worldview will tend to defeat the process.
One of the techniques in healing is to find a way to make the sitter believe something might happen. A healer’s good reputation helps. A dramatic environment can evoke a strong “This might happen” response in the sitter, which in turn, opens the Attention Matrix to express beneficial information to the body.
Fooling the Perceptual Loop into accepting the healing is acknowledgment of human nature. For the healer, the sitter is a human, and when it comes to health, the human instincts are usually dominant. That means the body image. If it has evolved to accept the health condition (I am just getting old, I am always sickly) then worldview will tend to defeat positive input.
Fear is another powerful block to well-being. From my studies, counseling related to alternative health practices involves a great deal of fooling the fear response. The very idea of cancer is so loaded with fear that it is difficult for the sitter to keep from incorporating acceptance of eminent death into their worldview. Such practices as meditating to imagine “packman”-type creatures running around in the body to eat cancer cells is really a way of cajoling the worldview into accepting hope, and thereby offering the body image a more positive perspective.
Hyperlucidity: Looking again at hyperlucidity, inspirational writer, William Arthur Ward, told us that, “If you can imagine it, you can achieve it. If you can dream it, you can become it.” Imagining something is true gives the mind a kind of permission to look beyond old beliefs engrained in worldview. In hyperlucidity, this can become a problem if the person is unable to make a distinction between thinking one can do what is visualized and believing one has done what is visualized even though that is not the case.
Hyperlucidity can be a delusional state, but this same mechanism is potentially a powerful tool for changing body image. The healer is addressing the often-irrational hindbrain and not the more rational etheric personality. As such, the healer can be instrumental in fooling the sitter’s hindbrain into accepting the possibility healing can happen.
Who is Doing What?
In spiritualist traditions, the healer is assumed to be a conduit for healing “energy” provided by discarnate loved ones and helpers. However, in most healing modalities the healer is thought to provide the healing influence. In some, it is understood that the healer is more of a counselor and that the sitter is self-healing.
Considering the Implicit Cosmology, the healer is always a source for the expression of healing intention. Other personalities are probably involved in any such exchange between healer and sitter, and the more appropriate model is that the intention of the healer, the acceptance of the sitter and the circumstances of the session all come together to facilitate the modification of the sitter’s body image.
All of us are part of a personal and universal community integrated as a whole by attention, intention and the entanglement of rapport. The healer usually consciously expresses the intention to access assistance from this community, thus “opening” the channel for the expression of healing intention from the community. For an experienced healer, the act of approaching a sitter likely triggers an unconscious healing response which also opens this channel. In the same way, the sitter opens a similar channel by the act of being a sitter and the expression of the desire to gain help.
Given the fact of self-determination, it is this “opening of the channel” that is necessary for others to help. In the end, though, the sitter is the source and the means by which healing occurs.
Modes of Healing
It is possible to learn how to sense the biofield. Healers are often taught to move a hand over the sitter’s body, usually not touching but inches above the body, and imagine feeling a difference in the auraic field. Depending on the modality, the healer might be taught to feel “stiffening” in the field near a problem area. Alternatively, the area might be expected to feel wormer or colder. It depends on the system of thought.
From my experience, it is possible to learn to feel a change, and this can be verified by blind tests. Of course, problem areas in the body might actually be wormer because of increased biological activity, but the thickening is unexpected. In one modality, in which the thickening is related to a memory of the sitter, having the healer physically “break up” the thickening to make it smoother, might evoke related memories in the sitter’s mind. This is related to a counselor-sitter role more than a healer-sitter one.
Dealing with people and human nature, it is difficult to argue that the effect is real and not just psychosomatic, but the results can be therapeutic. The point is that the interaction between healer and sitter can be tangible.
In some systems, a distinction is made between spiritual healing and magnetic healing. Here, “magnetic” is an old term that might be better thought of as vitality. The idea is that some of the healer’s own vitality goes to the wellbeing of the sitter. In this case, it is common for the healer to report being depleted after a session.
Probably the more desirable approach to healing is what is commonly referred to as spiritual healing. In that, the healer imagines him or herself as a channel for healing energy from loved ones on the other side.
In the Implicit Cosmology, vitality from the healer or spiritual healing form the other side are modeled in the same way. In fact, I do not know if there is an actual physiological difference, as I treat both the same. For me, it is all intention and clarity of imagined outcome. I do focus more on mentally addressing the sitter’s body image than I do the personality.
As a historical note, in the 1700s, Franz Anton Mesmer7 introduced the world to animal magnetism and mesmerism. Like a shaman, he used suggestion to entrain people’s attention. Mesmerism was probably a precursor to psychotherapy and hypnotism, and the concept of animal magnetism certainly relates to the concept of biofield healing as opposed to body image healing. What I refer to here as vitality is probably just a more acceptable name for what Mesmer referred to as magnetic fluids in the body. Again, different systems have different ways of looking at essentially the same concepts.
Prayer as a means of communicating intention with an unseen god has been fundamental to religions throughout the world and throughout history. Other than giving thanks, probably the most common purpose of prayer is to ask for divine help. Prayer in behalf of others has also been a common practice.
In the Implicit Cosmology, prayer is seen as the expression of the intention to realize an intended outcome. When thought of as prayer, the person’s worldview likely includes the assumption that some intermediary personality will sense this expression and cause the intended result. For instance, asking a saint for protection or God for healing.
This desire to help another by way of what parapsychologists refer to as intercessory prayer is translated as spiritual healing when a person’s health is concerned. Intercessory prayer is functionally the same as noncontact healing or distant healing, both of which have been shown to be effective.
In the Implicit Cosmology, the act of praying expresses an intention field which includes the purpose and visualized outcome. In principle, the quality of focused attention, how clearly the desired outcome is visualized and the degree to which the desire is intended to be true are impotent factors determining if the intended outcome will be realized. These factors apply to both the healer and sitter; however, research shows that benefit can come even if the sitter is unaware of the healer’s effort.
The etheric personality of the person who is praying (healer) is modeled as always being in contact with its collective of other personalities. By extension, this contact includes the collective of all other personalities, so it is correct to say in this model that the healer is not alone in this expression. However, the degree to which other personalities might be able to help is not part of this model.
The ability of one person to influence another person’s wellbeing appears to be limited to the healer’s ability to manage the creative process and the extent to which the sitter is able to accept the influence. Given self-determination (free choice), there is no reason in this model to expect anything like divine intervention. But then, this is just a model, the validity of which you must decide.
Rupert Sheldrake’s Hypothesis of Formative Causation3 models a physical organism as a hierarchy of nested organizing field which he describes as morphic fields. Each field includes a memory representing what he refers to as “nature’s habit” for how that particular organism has traditionally been formed. The “top field” is the one that represents and organizes the entire body while subfields represent formation of components such as arm, hair on arm, skin and bone cells. In this model, the body image is nature’s habit for the entire body … the top morphic field.
Each subfield in an organism is modeled as one of the nested morphic fields. As such, they are modeled as being related to a collective and possessing a body image. See the Life Fields Essay.
Morphic fields determine how the body will be formed. I am not sure if this is in Sheldrake’s model, but as I translate his work into the Implicit Cosmology, the body image also maintains the body’s form and determines how it will age. At least in practical experience, something must be evolving the body image. Cells are frequently replaced and the new ones must be organized according to the body image.
As shown in the Life Field Complex Diagram (above), the body image provides a direct path for communication between the etheric body mind and the physical body. It acts in a similar way as the Perceptual Loop does for the conscious self of the personality entangled human. If this is correct, then the body’s morphic memory must be somehow modified for it to express a malfunction of the body.
Based on First Sight Theory,8 as it is described in the Perception Essay, worldview resists change, but is more responsive to incremental changes produced by ambiguous results of the Perceptual Loop. This momentum is also present in morphic fields. So, in a similar way, it is reasonable to expect that the body image, as it is informed by Morphic Memory, dominates the continuous regeneration of body cells.
The Way back from Aging
To make a bold statement, aging is a response to expectation and not a response to time. Like worldview, body image evolves incrementally, and as such, that evolution should be able to be reversed incrementally. I would not expect to see an old person to suddenly become young in body, say under the direction of hypnosis. However, I would expect a bodily response to a life-long rejection of traditional expectations.
As the healer addresses the sitter for a session, the visualized outcome should be directed toward the body and not the personality. This may sound like nitpicking, but the there is a difference in expressed intention and visualized outcome.
The healer can be expected to be “stuck” with the expectation that the person is sick, old or in some way malfunctioning. That accepted impression in the healer’s worldview limits the ability to visualize the person in good health. The process of visualizing the body in it prime might side step this presumption. Such mental devices are important when dealing with human nature.
As many system of thought tell us, sickness comes first in the emotional body. In the same way, illnesses should also be considered an expectation artifact. It is that physiological response to expectation (in this case fear) that makes a cancer diagnoses so dangerous.
A Well-Documented Example
There is a lot of material on the Internet concerning healing, and it is not my intention here to say one is better than another. There are also a lot of questionable claims which confuses any casual research on the subject. If the basic assumptions of the Implicit Cosmology can be accepted, then it can provide guidance as to what to believe and what to ignore. In every case, I recommend that you error on the side of caution, as some of the simply silly claims can be very convincing.
One example I am willing to recommend for study is the work of William Bengston.9 As he explained in his book, The Energy Cure, Bengston met and became a student of a man who was a naturally able healer. As an academic, he was naturally oriented toward research and clinically verified his healing ability via numerous studies in which he reportedly (literally) cured lab mice that had been injected with incurable, virtually always fatal cancer.
As of this writing (2015), Bengston is president of the Society for Scientific Exploration.10 Based on this, the extensive effort he is making to certify his healing ability and apparent ability to teach other his technique, I feel comfortable recommending him as an example of a healer.
An interesting aspect of Bengston’s technique is what he refers to as cycling. In that, he teaches the healer to visualize a script of life goals or things the healer wants to achieve. At the beginning of a session, the healer should set the intention to heal the sitter, but rather than trying to “push” or will the healing “energy” into the sitter, the healer should begin remembering the list of goals, visualizing each one in succession, rapidly cycling through them for the remainder of the session. Bengston emphasizes the idea that this should be very rapid cycling from visualized want to visualized want, over and over again.
Following the Implicit Cosmology, cycling would be effective in sidestepping the healer’s self-doubt. In effect, taking the Perceptual loop out of the equation and allowing the etheric personality to more directly influence the expression output of the Attention Complex.
Distant Healing as a Tool for Psi Research
The psi field and psi functioning are difficult to study. First, no physical substance is known to shield a person from psi. As such, a person functioning as a mental medium is always suspected of “reading someone’s mind” to get desired information. Putting them in a different room or even in a different country is not believed to stop this possibility.
Most psi functioning effects are small, so that the best way to study say, the psychokinetic influence on coin tosses, is to look for deviation from chance over many trials. That is one of the reasons statistical analysis has become so prevalent in parapsychological research reporting.
Biofield therapy typically involves very small effect, as well. Then there is the problem of subjective responses to suggestion. Research is usually complicated when human nature is involved. This is especially true when the subject is supposed to be impossible in the first place.
As it turns out, distant healing research provides a way to study the effectiveness of the healing concept as well as the nature of psi. If a benefit from distant healing intention can be shown to be real, then the psi influence for delivering that means should also be real.
There is a substantial body of research concerning healing intention, nonlocal healing and psychokinetic influence. I see that parapsychologist Dean Radin is maintaining “Selected Peer-Reviewed Publications on Psi Research,”2 so rather than attempting to develop a list of references here, I will refer you to the list on his personal website.
From Radin’s comments on that page: “Commonly repeated critiques about psi, such as ‘these phenomena are impossible,’ or ‘there’s no valid scientific evidence,’ or ‘the results are all due to fraud,’ have been soundly rejected for many decades. Such critiques persist due to ignorance of the relevant literature and to entrenched, incorrect beliefs. Legitimate debates today no longer focus on existential questions but on development of adequate theoretical explanations, advancements in methodology, the ‘source’ of psi, and issues about effect size heterogeneity and robustness of replication.”
National Spiritualist Association of Churches, nsac.org
Radin, Dean, PhD. “Selected Peer-Reviewed Publications on Psi Research.” Dean Radin.com, deanradin.com/evidence/evidence.htm.
Sheldrake, Rupert, PhD. Morphic Resonance and Morphic Fields. Rupert Sheldrake Biologist and Author. sheldrake.org/Articles&Papers/papers/morphic/morphic_intro.html .
“What are telomeres and telomerase?” UT Southwestern Medical Center. utsouthwestern.edu/cellbio/shay-wright/intro/facts/sw_facts.html .
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (1744-1829). University of California Museum of Paleontology. ucmp.berkeley.edu/history/lamarck.html .
“Darwin’s Theory Of Evolution – A Theory in Crisis.” About Science. [Online] darwins-theory-of-evolution.com .
Franz Anton Mesmer, anton-mesmer.com .
Carpenter, James C., Ph.D, First Sight: ESP and Parapsychology in Everyday Life. s.l.: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2012. ISBN 978-1-4422-1392-0 (ebook).
Bengston, William F., Ph.D, The Energy Cure. Bengston Research. bengstonresearch.com .
Society for Scientific Exploration. scientificexploration.org .